Renaissance: Its name means to be born again. The invention of the movable type and the geographic advancements gave origin to this literary movement. It is in fact an artistic and literary movement.
Place of origin: Florence, Italy. Later developed in, Spain, France, and Portugal.
Time: during the 15th and 16th centuries.
- Return to Greco-Roman culture.
- It is the awakening of humanity in all of its artistic forms in order to accomplish its goals.
- An attempt to detach from the religious.
Baroque: Literary movement originated after a conceptual crisis in all artistic manifestations. First of all, this is a spiritual movement that takes different shapes depending on the country where it happens. This way, in Italy it is called Mannerism; in England, Euphysm; Preciousism in France; Silesian movement in Germany; and Conceptism and Gongorism in Spain.
Place of origin: it is born in Italy but ingrains in Spain.
Period: 17th century.
- Excessive, colorful use of literary language.
- Rhetoric, too elaborated.
- Preferred subjects are death, metaphysics, religion and theology.
- Presence of contradiction especially through the use of paradox as a medium of expression. Use of contrasts.
- Breaks harmony.
- New aesthetical concepts.
Neoclassicism: It is a movement obsessed with form. Its origin is closely related to Louis XVI king of France’s court, who decides to have under his command the spiritual, intellectual and artistic power in the court of Versailles. French language spreads through the word the same way Greek language previously did.
Place of origin: France.
Period: 18th century, called the Age of Enlightenment.
- Admiration of ancient Greek models and of the Renaissance works.
- Attempt to approach rationalism.
- Rigorous rules for work creation prevailed.
- Symmetry and rigidity.
- Strict correction in the art of writing.
Romanticism: This movement was born under the French Revolution’s protection and the ideal of freedom. These ideals are not only present in the scientific but also in the artistic sphere; this is how it emerges in literature. It is a return to the medieval past.
Place of origin: Germany and England.
Period: First half of the 19th century.
- It tosses away the rigidity of rules.
- Sense prevails over reason.
- Admiration of nature and freedom.
- Presence of a sense of defiance.
- Exaltation of “I”.